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Jack Dale Mengenen

106 Career Overall Rank

- 2020 Market Rank

  • Born: 1922 - 2013
  • Active: 1998

  • Region: Kimberley, WA, Kimberley, WA
  • Community: Derby
  • Outstation: Imintji
  • Language: Ngarinyin

Though they met briefly in the late 1980s, it was not until April 1997 that Jack Dale began painting and recording his cultural stories with the assistance of Melbourne art entrepreneur and publisher, Neil McLeod. McLeod began his association with artists of the Kimberley during projects in the region as early as 1977 when he first recorded and photographed ceremonies, the manufacture of artefacts and traditional food gathering.

In the late 1990s, Dale participated in a number of group exhibitions at Coo-ee Aboriginal Art, Sydney, as well as Michel Sourgnes Fine Art, Brisbane during 2001 and 2002. These were followed in quick succession by no less than seven solo exhibitions between 2001 and 2006, all organised through Neil McLeod. Amongst the venues were Flinders Lane and Vivien Anderson Gallery in Melbourne, Kintolai Gallery in Adelaide, Coo-ee Gallery in Sydney, and Japingka Gallery in Fremantle.

The works included in these exhibitions were created during workshops conducted at Dale’s home in Derby. Several times each year McLeod would drive from Melbourne to the Kimberley with art materials and equipment for workshops that could last up to a month in duration. His absence from the Kimberley for extended periods enabled the owners of a Perth gallery to claim they had signed Dale to an exclusive contract and to demand that McLeod hand over all of the paintings in his possession to the artist’s ‘new agents'. When the works Dale produced for them proved to be inferior, they insisted that those created for McLeod could not be in the artist’s own hand and called the fraud squad. Confronted by police in Derby, the old man, quite naturally afraid, made no secret about receiving appropriate family assistance. Works were confiscated from his exhibition at Japingka Gallery and sent to anthropologist Kevin Shaw who concluded, as did others who visited Derby to watch Dale paint, that the venerated old artist had no case to answer. The confiscated paintings were returned. The 'exclusive' contract with the Perth Gallery was deemed to be invalid and Dale once more resumed painting for McLeod.

While Dale’s works were freely available in the primary market, his results at auctions were less than auspicious. In 2007, two works sold for what remain the artist's record and third highest price to date. The first of these appeared at Lawson~Menzies in May (Lot 25). Offered with an estimate of $30,000-35,000 this eye-catching 180 x 231 cm image, Male Wandjinas - Baby Dreaming, created just 12 months earlier, sold for $31,200 to a buyer who had already announced his intentions prior to the sale. It was obvious that powerful primary market influences were at play in underpinning the work of an important old artist of whom most collectors were, as yet, largely unaware. At its next sale in November 2007 Lawson~Menzies featured another major work, this time measuring 143 x 199 cm. This canvas, Wandjinas at Iondra 2006 was an even more impressive painting than the former lot and sold above its high estimate for $45,600, the artist’s current record price. As a direct result of these two sales Jack Dale shot to 120th on the most successful artist list. Further success in 2008 when two works sold for $38,400 and $13,200 saw him leap to become the 66th most successful Aboriginal artist of all time. In 2009 strong sales pushed him further to 60th, with a highly impressive average of $20,518. This was all the more remarkable because he had yet to reach the threshold of 20 works offered. In  2010 another seven works appeared at sale pushing over the threshold for the first time. However it was not the most opportune time for it to do so even though three new works entered his top ten sales records. In 2013 and 2014 two fine examples entered his top 10 records but his results have not been nearly as impressive since and his ranking has dropped sharply. He is currently the 100th most successful artist of the movement.

While one would expect that Jack Dale’s rating and position to have continued to rise, they have not done so. His high value works tend to be large, and for this reason, few are offered for public sale. Major paintings sell for $35,000-40,000 in the primary market, as no other artist has portrayed these iconic creator beings on such a scale other than perhaps David Mowaljarli. They are now being shown internationally. As time progresses these paintings are likely to become emblematic of the last artistic outpouring of a generation of genuine characters that embodied the spirit and Aboriginal heritage of the West Kimberley region.

Jack Dale lived in the remote and rugged Kimberley region of northwest Australia since childhood. His life spanned from the turbulent and often bloody years of early white settlement through to a life working cattle and traveling the northwest as he accumulated knowledge and the ancient stories of the land and its creation spirits.

The son of a hard-living Scottish man and an Indigenous woman of the Ngarinyin people, he spent his earliest years wandering the bush tracks further and further from his home. His cruel and often violent father shot him in the leg and tied him to a tree to stop him ‘running away’ while still a youth (Dale 2006). His father died however, when Jack was still young, and to his good fortune, Jack was taken under the wing of his Aboriginal grandfather who taught him Narrungunni law and protected him from the prevailing social attitude toward mixed blood children. During this time, Jack walked many hundreds of miles with his grandfather, learning about country and the ancestral spirits that created it. They often had to hide from police patrols that would forcibly take Aboriginal children to be housed in institutions. Sometimes, from hiding places, they watched chain gangs of Aboriginal men being marched away by white men on horseback and later saw the arrival of the Afghan camel drivers. When he began painting in his late 70’s at his home in Derby, these and other historical incidents that he witnessed first hand during his youth became some of the important subjects he explored in his art.

Melbourne natural history photographer, artist and entrepreneur, Neil McLeod visited Jack Dale during the late 1980’s at the suggestion of David Mowaljarlai and anthropologist Kevin Shaw. Ten years later, in 1997, re-introduced by Shaw, McLeod asked Dale if he would consider painting. The old man, by now in his 70’s, was excited that someone had come to him at last to record his knowledge and traditions. McLeod supplied the materials and encouraged Dale to begin painting. As one of the last of the dwindling generation of old men who possess complete knowledge of the rituals, law and culture of his people, Jack Dale had become a vital link to the past. 

A custodian of ancient stories about the land and its creation, his most compelling and mysterious works focus on the Wandjina and other important spirit beings that created the land and instituted the laws that govern human behaviour. Wandjinas are powerful fertility spirits responsible for the life-giving monsoon rains. Jack believes that the ‘big boss’ Wandjina can rally his attendants when conflict occurs between humans. These spirits are depicted in a distinctive style; ghost like, with haloes, large dark pool-like eyes and with no mouth for, according to Dale, giving them a mouth would mean the heavens would open and the rain would never cease. “Whites have the bible. We have our Wandjinas. We have to go to these places else we are empty,” said Dale. These Wandjina sites, located throughout the Kimberley, are over 60,000 years old and are painted on rock overhangs, often marked by striking geological features like the Djalala or ‘marking stones’ that indicate their presence.

Despite his age, Jack Dale worked with an indefatigable energy, documenting important beliefs and events of his life. He was often assisted by family members including his wife, artist Biddy Dale. At the end of his life he worked by drafting out the major story elements on to his canvases, which can at times be up to two metres or more in size. As he did this, he related the story while instructing and overseeing his wife and daughter Edna Dale as they completed the dotted outlines and decorative infill.

The dramatic Kimberley country with its harsh stony areas, steeply rising ranges and deep gorges created by fast-flowing, wet season rivers are the focus of Jack’s more abstract works. In map-like paintings that trace the contours of the desert landscape, Jack used broad areas of strong colour to create a feeling of tangible substance within his mythic vision of the land. His depictions of spirit beings and historical episodes are rendered in a figurative style while his striking depictions of the Kimberley landscape and features such as the rocky outcrops that guard the homes of the Wandjina are painted from an omnipotent perspective, thereby resonating with the spare minimal works of Rover Thomas and others who painted in the East Kimberley. However, in a stylistic departure that identifies his work, Dale portrayed these as spare geometric forms by employing red black and white pigments, with occasional surprising additions like gold powder, in preference to the earthy tones of his East Kimberley contemporaries. In doing so, he inadvertently achieved remarkably modernist effects and imagery that resonate with those seen on Delaunay's fabrics.

Jack Dale’s paintings, with their correlating landscape markers of hills, waterholes and traditional journey lines, were used in a land claim that returned the Imintji country to its traditional owners. For health reasons Dale spent the last years of his life in the closest town, Derby. Sometimes called the ‘Grand Old Man of the Kimberley', Jack was a highly respected tribal elder, both for his custodianship of Ceremonial Law and for his skill as a bushman. He came to painting late in life, after many hard-working years as a stockman. Even then, he was revered for his extensive knowledge and admired for his physical strength and determined attitude. This, he re-lived and communicated in his painting, sharing with an international audience, a powerful experience of the inimitable Kimberley genius, so precariously balanced at the crossroads of change.

Profile References

?. 2006. Jack Dale Exhibition Invitation. Fremantle. Japingka Gallery.
Geissler, Marie. 2006. Media Release for Cooee exhibition. Australia. Cooee Gallery.
Shaw, Kevin. 2000. Jack Dale Biography. Australia. ?.
McLeod, Neil. ?. Jack Dale Mengenen . Australia. ?.


Glenroy Station , Saddlers Creek, Boab Bluff, Bell Gorge, Londra, Dale Gorge, Mount House


Wandjina, Djalala, Argula Spirits


Ochres on Linen and Canvas, Synthetic Polymer Paint on Linen and Canvas

Regional Map

Note: This map is a representation and not accurate. Some sites are sacred and therefore not shown.

Market Performance

Career Totals

AIAM100 Rank
AIAM100 Rating
Clearance Rate
Average Price
Total Price
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3842 0.0980 0.2198 0.0410 0.0666 0.0758 0.0266 0.0000
0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/3 2/2 1/3 2/2 2/5 2/3 4/7 0/0 2/3 8/9 1/5 4/7 1/4 4/12 1/4 1/1 0/0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $3,525 $1,210 $38,400 $25,800 $24,000 $4,800 $0 $5,875 $8,233 $9,600 $3,020 $1,680 $1,110 $5,750 $705 $0
Yearly Market Performance Graph from 2000 - 2020

Top 10 Artworks Sold at Auction


Wandjinas at Iondra 2006

sale price: $45,600.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 38 date: 14/11/2007
143 x 199 cm Synthetic polymer paint on linen

Wandjinas (Minjil Ridi)

sale price: $38,400.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 238 date: 19/06/2008
210 x 155 cm Earth pigments and synthetic polymer pain on canvas

Male Wandjinas - Baby Dreaming, 2006

sale price: $31,200.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 25 date: 23/05/2007
180 x 231 cm Natural earth pigments on canvas

Wandjinas from Albert Point 2007

sale price: $24,000.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 197 date: 24/06/2009
203 x 165 cm Synthetic polymer paint and earth pigments on linen

Big Mob

sale price: $24,000.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 186 date: 24/06/2009
208 x 222 cm Synthetic polymer paint and earth pigments on canvas

Djalala (Sacred Stones)

sale price: $13,200.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 212 date: 25/09/2008
120 x 180 cm Synthetic polymer paint on canvas

Wandjina Stones

sale price: $10,200.00
auction: Menzies, Sydney  lot: 119 date: 25/03/2010
156.5 x 240 cm Synthetic polymer paint on canvas

Winjin Wandjinas

sale price: $8,591.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 166 date: 21/11/2013
203.5 x 132.5 cm Natural earth pigments on canvas

Murad Spider's Web Wandjina

sale price: $8,591.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 79 date: 21/11/2013
203 x 129 cm Natural earth pigments on canvas

Map of Country - Land Rights, 2007

sale price: $6,750.00
auction: Lawson~Menzies, Sydney  lot: 55 date: 17/05/2012
214 x 210 cm Natural earth pigments on Belgian linen

Available Artworks

Sorry There are currently no artworks available for this artist.