AKA Millie Nampitjinpa, Mirlkitjungu
140 Career Overall Rank
172 2020 Market Rank
The results for Millie Skeen’s paintings at auction follow, almost in textbook fashion, her growing ability as a painter, the stylistic fluctuations throughout her career, and her decline in dexterity with the approach of old age. Her first work appeared at auction as early as 1994 while she was painting at her prime. West Australian Ray Laurie had decided to sell off a collection of some 350 works that he had assembled during the previous decade and these comprised a stand alone sale at Lawson’s Auctioneers in Sydney in September 1994. In that sale, an unillustrated early work of Millie’s sold for $715, not that short of the retail price for a similarly sized 77 x 100 cm work in the primary market at that time.
However, when Karlaya (Emu) Dreaming at Yapparoo 1993 appeared at Sotheby’s in June 1996, this highly desirable, beautifully executed example created in the artist’s prime achieved $5,290, more than doubling the price paid for it just two years earlier at Sydney’s Coo-ee Aboriginal Art Gallery.
The earliest work by Millie that has appeared at auction was created in 1988. It is dark and lacks the distinction of her later works, yet is typical of her earliest paintings. It would have been amongst the first half dozen works she ever attempted, and when offered at Christie's in October 2004 (Lot 26) with a highly optimistic estimate of $8,000-12,000 it, not unexpectedly, failed to sell. A work created three years later in 1991 which was offered by Bonham’s and Goodman in November 2007 is a perfect example of her work at that moment when she had just begun to embrace a more highly charged colour field. When compared to works that followed over the subsequent three years, it is clear that it was representative of a transitional phase in her artistic development. This also failed to attract a buyer when offered with an estimate of $8,000 -12,000.
Two works have been offered twice with entirely different results. A small untitled work measuring 49 x 100 cm failed to sell when first offered by Sotheby’s in October 2006 with an estimate of $7,000-10,000 (Lot 57), yet when re-offered at Joel’s Fine Art in June 2007 it sold for $10,445 (Lot 131). While not her finest work, it did display all of the hallmarks that have established her as one of Balgo’s finest female painters. In a similar case, a work that failed to sell as Nakarra Nakarra 1993 at Sotheby’s in June 1998 (lot 118), set the artists third highest result when sold for $18,000 at Lawson~Menzies in November 2006 carrying an estimate of $10,000-15,000 and renamed Nakarra Nakarra Dreaming Track (Lot 125). This work that was produced for the Manungka Manungka Women’s Association was one of the artist’s finest.
In what appears to have been a case of pushing a little too hard a little too fast, Sotheby’s faith in the stunning but small Kapairri 1991, offered in their July 2005 sale, failed to bear fruit after they saddled it with a $25,000-35,000 presale estimate. They were no doubt emboldened by the $19,120 achieved by Christie's for the 92 x 61 cm untitled work created in 1995, which although colourful, clearly demonstrated that the artist was unwell and reaching the end of her career. It sold immediately prior to her husband’s emblematic Inargi Dreaming that achieved $33,460 having graced the cover of James Cowan’s book Wirrimanu-Aboriginal Art from the Balgo Hills.
Millie’s record price was set by Lawson~Menzies in November 2005 when Yapparoo 1994 sold for $21,600. This work was also juxtaposed in the auction catalogue with a work by her husband Tommy that achieved his fourth highest price at auction. Looking at these two works together provides a fascinating insight into the art and lives of two closely wedded artists.
While Millie Skeen’s clearance rate is relatively low, her sales are dominated by works of high value. It jumped from 58% to 62% during 2008, however, while one particular painting achieved her tenth highest result her career average price dropped from $9,605 to $9,117. She is definitely a painter to keep an eye on. Collectors should take particular interest in her works created between 1991 and 1994 as these can only increase in interest and value over the years to come.
Millie Skeen was born in the early 1930’s in her grand parents' country near Kiwirrkura, south of Balgo, beyond Lake McKay. In relating stories of her nomadic lifestyle as a little girl, walking from one place to another, she explained ‘living at Tjipirrkulu-big rock hole… we start walk to another place. Warlawarra. We camp there one night… Mother one carry me. I bin little' (1997: 18). Eventually Millie, along with her sister Rita Kunintji Nampitjin and her parents made their way to Tjalwan where the old Balgo Mission had been established in 1942. Their mother passed away soon after and the two sisters grew up in the mission making regular forays into the harsh surrounding desert searching for bush foods. She met her future husband Tommy Skeen at Balgo Hills in the late 1950’s. ‘Thomas Skeen come on a camel. He learn properly. Breakem, breakem, makem quiet. Fit saddle for camel to carry him. He bin gettem me for wife‘ (1997: 123).
Tommy, who had been born near Yaka Yaka, c.1930, grew up in the desert north of Lake McKay. After marrying, they lived the life of a cowboy and his wife as Tommy worked at various locations in the Kimberley cattle industry. By the mid 1980’s, at the time of the establishment of Warlayirti Artists, Tommy and Millie Skeen were living in Balgo Hills. Millie became one of the first women to paint in 1986 and, while it is possible that Tommy assisted her in her early paintings, this is unlikely, as her development as an artist at this time underwent a number of stylistic evolutions. However, it was common for husbands and wives to paint together at this stage in the development of the art movement and slowly, over time, Tommy would have shared a greater hand in Millie’s creative activity. By 1990 they had moved to live at Mullun, a community adjacent to Lake Gregory, an hour’s drive to the west of Balgo and it was here that they shared the remainder of their lives together.
While Millie’s early works employ the characteristically dark autumnal palette of Balgo paintings created between 1985 and 1989 she was one of the leaders of the movement amongst the female artists to adopt the brighter colours afforded by the broader range of student acrylics supplied to the artists thereafter. Her works were accomplished and distinguishable by the time Balgo held its first exhibition at the Art Gallery of Western Australia in 1989 and featured in Balgo’s first commercial exhibitions in 1990 at the Dreamtime Gallery in Broad beach, Queensland, and 1991, when Coo-ee Aboriginal Art Gallery launched the Balgo artists in Sydney with the exhibition Warlayirti Artists Homelands.
Tommy and Millie’s most productive creative period together was 1990-1992 and it is likely that works created during this period were largely collaborative regardless of their attribution. However, by 1993 a group of fourteen senior law women, in seeking to further assert and revivify their culture, became founding members of the Manungka Manungka Women’s Association, and undertook the production of a body of women’s ‘culture’ paintings outside of the ‘official’ art centre in the community. This move was partially in response to their impression that Robin Beesey, the art coordinator at that time, was more interested in the creativity and welfare of the male artists. Millie Skeen was one of the most active participants in this movement and she created some of her finest works in this nurturing environment. The group held just two exhibitions before eventually dissolving. In November-December 1993 and March 1994 they conducted workshops and held public performances of their dances and songs at Alexandria Town Hall in Sydney, and in Melbourne.
Between 1994 and 1996, Millie painted along side her husband Tommy at their home in Mullun, each excelling at conveying the depth that exists within each articulated Dreaming story that they rendered. There is a dreamy quality evident in the way one can get lost meandering through the forms and paths in the work, just as one might get lost in the actual desert landscape. Exploring Millie’s work aesthetically is as joyful an experience as is possible when looking at an Aboriginal artwork. Her palette was distinctively a carnival of radiant colour. The contrast between fields of dots and flat blocks and lines of colour added a delicate tension, and together all of these elements resulted in paintings that are a delight.
In these works Millie delved into memories of her childhood hunting and gathering in the desert south of the old mission and the Dreaming stories passed on to her though her mother and from Tommy himself. Important narratives such as the Bush Potato and Bush Carrot Dreaming stories; the making of Tjimari (stone knives) for cutting Kangaroo meat; sites and aspects of the Tingari and Nakarra Nakarra song cycles that relate to Women’s Law; and the travels of the Emu Ancestors formed just part of the narrative elements of her paintings. The elaborate composition of her works reflects the patterns found in body and ground painting and defies a simple geographic reading. In Kutjungka culture the surface of the body is analogous to the surface of the land. This parallel explains the complexity of works of art, which do not merely portray iconography that can be literally translated, but also impart in a deeper, and more personally meaningful way, the eventful travels of Millie’s ancestors across the land.
Tommy and Millie Skeen painted relatively prolifically until 1996 after which both became increasingly infirm and their creative output began to decline markedly. While all of the senior women artists at Balgo Hills during the early 1990’s painted identifiably distinguishable work, Millie’s art exemplifies the verve and pride with which these women took to painting, thereby creating a distinctive art movement. Her works stand out for both the beauty of their realization, and the intimacy of their execution, as exemplars for future generations of Balgo women to emulate.
Morphy, H Smith, Boles & Watson, C. 1999. in Art From the Land, dialogues with the Kluge-Ruhe Collection of Australian Aboriginal Art. America. University of Virginia.
Nampitjin, M, S, Sonja, P & Lofts, P . 1997. Yarrtji: Six Womenâ€™s Sories from the Great Sandy Desert. Canberra. Aboriginal Studies Press .
Great Sandy Desert , Yapparoo (Yaparu), Liwarrdi (Lillwati) Billabong, Kamirra Billabong
Bush Food , Emu, Flying Ants, Kangaroo, Tjimarri-Special Knives for Kangaroo
Synthetic Polymer Paint on Linen and Canvas